West Philadelphia Streetcar Suburb
Note: The text contains references to photographs and illustrations which are not available at this time. We hope to have them here soon. Meanwhile, here is a map.
The West Philadelphia Streetcar Suburb Historic District an urban, largely residential district containing over 3,500 buildings located adjacent to the University of Pennsylvania campus in the eastern section of West Philadelphia. The district is roughly bounded by the University of Pennsylvania campus, the Woodlands Cemetery, the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, Woodland and Kingsessing Avenues, the Conrail Railroad line, St. Bernard Street, Catharine Street, 51st Street, Hazel Avenue, 52nd Street, 46th Street, Pine Street, 47th Street, Walnut Street, Chestnut Street, and Ludlow Street (see figure 1). Lawns, shade trees, stone walls, and iron fences provide a cohesiveness which distinguishes the district from the surrounding neighborhoods. The district's buildings are primarily composed of mid to late nineteenth and early twentieth century, three-story, brick and stone semi-detached houses, rowhouses and single detached dwellings that embody design characteristics unique to the expanse of greater West Philadelphia. A span of architectural styles are represented in the residential buildings including the Italianate, Victorian Gothic, Second Empire, Gothic Revival, Queen Anne, Colonial Revival, and Classical Revival, as well as countless variations on these styles. Corner turrets, projecting metal or wood shingled bays, wooden porches, stained and leaded glass windows, and ornamental metalwork are among the typical decorative features. The commercial buildings, generally located on the primary thoroughfares of Baltimore Avenue, Chestnut and Walnut Streets, maintain the residential scale and character established in this neighborhood. The district also includes numerous institutional buildings such as schools and churches, which are typically imposing and architecturally varied resources. The district's buildings have changed little in form, shape, or setting, with minimal alterations to the original fabric, and retain a high degree of architectural integrity. Only 3% of the district's buildings are non-contributing resources, and there has been minimal demolition or new construction. Thus, the majority of the buildings contribute to the period of significance. Also included within the bounds are three sites: a city park and two community gardens, and one object, a statue located in the city park.
In general, the residential buildings have retained their setting and forms, and many original details, which are most heavily concentrated at porches, bays, cornices, and roofs. Typical alterations include the addition of aluminum or vinyl siding on elements such as bays or cornices, the replacement of porch posts or balustrades, and alterations to fenestration. As a whole, the residential buildings embody the distinctive characteristics of the prevalent styles of the period and stand with a high degree of integrity. The non-residential buildings have, in general, retained their setting and forms and have been little altered. Many are fine examples of their styles and stand as visual and architectural landmarks in the community.
West Philadelphia became one of Philadelphia's premier neighborhoods, possessing the lower density and other amenities of suburban living, yet only a short commute from Center City. In the mid-nineteenth century, large single and twin romantic Gothic and Italianate villas were built on lots of several hundred square feet. Extensive residential development continued over the next four decades when near full utilization of the land ended development opportunities. The district is characterized by a wide variety of large, speculative rowhouses and semi-detached houses, often with characteristics unique to this section of the city.
Development of the district was steady from 1850-1930 as the population spread westward. Accordingly, the individual neighborhoods within the district illustrate the architectural styles that were popular during the various periods of development within the period of significance. There are no physical boundaries dividing the various neighborhoods within the district and the neighborhoods are generally not recognized by formal names. Rather the neighborhoods are defined by association with the public buildings and by their architectural styles, materials and scale.
The earliest Gothic and Italianate buildings, constructed prior to 1870, are generally located east of 42nd Street and represent the vestiges of the Hamiltonville development. By 1886 the area bounded by Chestnut to Locust and 40th to 45th had developed in response to the horsecar depot which opened at 41st and Chestnut Streets. This development features early variations of the Victorian style. During this same period, the depot and 49th and Woodland spurred a small pocket of development in the southern section of the district around 1885, with development of nearly the entire area between Windsor to Woodland and 45th to the Conrail lines completed by 1895. These 1885-1895 buildings feature the late Victorian and early Revival styles. Between 1895-1900 significant development occurred in three areas: 43rd to 45th and Walnut to Baltimore, 46th to 51st and Hazel to Baltimore, and 48th to St. Bernard and Baltimore to Warrington. Hence, these areas predominantly contain Colonial Revival style buildings. Between 1900-1910 these same sections were fully developed as was the northwestern section bounded by 45th to 47th and Walnut to Pine. The final period of 1910-1930 is marked by the presence of apartment houses in the later Revival styles which are concentrated along Walnut Street, Spruce Street, and Chester Avenue.
As each neighborhood developed, schools and churches were erected to serve the needs of the new communities. Hence, these institutional buildings are scattered throughout the district, with the earliest examples located in the pre-1885 sections and the later examples in the areas that developed in the first decade of the twentieth century. In total, four education related buildings and fourteen churches remain in this district, generally representing the period of development of each neighborhood. Their immense scale and public function have secured their landmark status within the community.
The district's streets are organized in a grid pattern which is essentially an extension of the grid established in Center City Philadelphia. North of Baltimore Avenue, the streets are organized along the east-west axis, with the primary thoroughfares running east-west, and the secondary numbered streets running north-south. South of Baltimore Avenue, the grid is skewed to the southwest on a 45 degree angle. The pattern of organization of the lot sizes in the district is somewhat varied, with the named (east-west) streets containing the more commodious lots north of Baltimore Avenue, and with a more even distribution of lot sizes on both named and numbered streets south of Baltimore. The lots are typically long and narrow, allowing for both a front and rear yard. In the area south of Baltimore Avenue, small one and two block tertiary streets exist such as Farragut, Windsor, and Trinity, which occasionally terminate and reappear several blocks away.
The layout of the buildings on the lots varies with the period of development and the architectural style of the buildings. Generally, the earlier Italian Villa and Gothic Revival residences are set further back on wide lots, providing for extensive front and side yards. During the next phase of development in the 1870s-1900, the houses were sited more toward the street with 20'- 25' front yards and narrow side yards. As lot sizes continued to shrink, the early twentieth century buildings were often placed very close to the property line, allowing for a small front yard area. In the final phase of significant construction, which largely consisted of the 1920s apartment buildings, the architects maximized the buildable lot area, and located open areas within the building volume as an open court.
The predominant building type in the district is the "twin," two units sharing a party wall, as well as stylistic features, generally laid out in opposing floor plans. The dominant form of the twin is three stories in height with a generous front porch, second story bay, and decorative elements concentrated at the third story level. Because the twins were often built as part of a block of speculative development, stone or brick perimeter walls, and iron fences appear as continuing landscape features.
The vast majority of the buildings have been well preserved with typical alterations consisting of aluminum or vinyl siding on cornices or bays, replacement porch posts or balustrades, and window alterations. A residential scale persists throughout the district with the houses varying from three to four stories, and the apartment buildings rising four or five stories in height. The cohesiveness of architectural fabric and scale reflects the continuous period of development from 1850-1930.
The residential architecture of the district can be grouped into four reasonably discrete periods: pre-1870, 1870-1900, 1900-1920, 1920-1930.
The pre-1870 Italian Villas typically contain features representative of the Italianate, Greek Revival, and Second Empire styles. These early houses, of which a remarkable number survive, are primarily scattered between 40th-42nd, Locust-Chester and are grouped in small numbers, as relics of the earliest developments in the district. Among the more notable of these early developments are Hamilton Terrace, Hamilton Estate, Woodland Terrace, and the east side of the 200 block of S. 42nd Street.
Designed by Samuel Sloan in 1856, Hamilton Terrace, located on the west side of S. 41st Street below Baltimore Avenue, was originally composed of five Italianate buildings, though only two twins remain (see photograph 1). The extant buildings, numbers 502-504 and 508-510, are three-story, two-bay, stuccoed, Greek Revival/Italianate twins with distinctive front porches with Corinthian columns. Other distinguishing features include bracketed window hoods, denticulated cornices, and 4/4 windows. As indicated in the photograph, typical alterations include the replacement of original windows and the removal of window hoods.
The Hamilton Family Estate development (c. 1854-1867) is located on the south side of the 4000 block of Pine Street and also includes 4039 and 4041 Baltimore Avenue (National Register, 1979, see photograph 2). This grouping of predominantly Italianate detached and semi-detached, three-story residences are distinguished by large, terraced, front yards with stone and iron fences, columned porches, segmentally arched windows in 4/4 and 4/6 configurations, bay windows, bracketed cornices, projecting pavilions, and slate roofs.
Another notable grouping of early Italianate buildings is Woodland Terrace (constructed 1861, National Register, 1971) which is a distinctive grouping of twenty-one, three-story, three-bay brownstone Italianate semi-detached houses that incorporate various devices to give the appearance of large detached houses (see photograph 3). Distinguishing features of this development include terraced front and side yards enclosed by stone walls and iron fences, wrap-around bracketed porches, tall 4/4 first floor windows, projecting window hoods, paired semi-circular arched windows at the third floor, paired bracketed cornices, hipped roof bracketed cupolas projecting from hipped roofs, three-story side entrance bays, and wood shingling at the third story of certain units. The Woodland Terrace residences retain a very high degree of integrity due to the early recognition of their significance and the appreciation of the architecture by the residents.
John D. Jones designed a grouping of Italianate houses on the east side of the 200 block of S. 42nd Street in 1863-1865 (see photograph 4). Jones' first composition was the corner unit, 233 South 42nd Street. This three-story, stone, Italianate detached house is distinguished by its generous yard with stone fence, semi-circular arched headed windows, 4/4 sash, bracketed cornice, and square tower. The porch was altered in the Greek Revival style at the turn of the century with paired classical columns. With the success of this residence, Jones then built three twins to the immediate south. These two-and-one-half story, two-bay, granite and brownstone twins were designed in the Second Empire style in an AABBAA pattern. Distinguishing features of the A units include bracketed porches, square headed and arched headed windows, paired bracketed cornices, mansard roofs with single elliptical arched projecting dormers. The center B units feature bracketed porches, tall first floor windows, square headed and arched windows, and mansard roofs with semi-circular projecting dormer windows. These buildings stand in excellent condition with a very high degree of integrity.
The second period of construction, 1870-1900, features a great variety of Late Victorian styles with the earliest buildings containing features reminiscent of the earlier Italianate and Second Empire styles, followed by the beginning of the Queen Anne which was initially coupled with the earlier Italianate or Victorian Gothic styles, and later was revealed as its own distinctive style with great exuberance. The mid-1890s witnessed the beginning of the revivals including the Romanesque Revival, Renaissance Revival, Classical Revival, Colonial Revival and Georgian Revival. The earliest buildings in this period are located near the historic transportation nodes in the proximity of 49th and Woodland and 41st and Chestnut.
In 1873 Clarence Clark developed a grouping of three-story brick rowhouses on the north side of the 4000 block of Locust Street, deviating from the Italianate style that had characterized the preceding developments in the district (see photograph 5). These fourteen, three-story, two-bay, Queen Anne rowhouses are arranged in an AAAABBAAAABBBB pattern with unifying characteristics such as paired porches, flattened Gothic arches at the window and door openings, decorative brick belt courses, corbelled brick cornices and slate roof shingles. Largely student occupied, this row has witnessed the removal of porches and the replacement of windows which impacts on the original design intent of a continuous, unified grouping, though the overall integrity remains.
The noted Philadelphia architectural firm of G.W. and W.D. Hewitt mastered the use of the Queen Anne style in their 4206-4218 Spruce Street commission of 1887-1888 (see photograph 6). These seven, three-story, two-bay, brick rowhouses are distinguished by iron fences, columned porches with decorative spindlework, decorative brickwork, steeply pitched cross gables, turrets, second floor corner balconies on the end units, fishscale tilework at the gable peaks, tall corbelled brick chimneys, slate roofs, and windows with small panes surrounding a single large pane. In recent years the original wooden elements, in particular the porch features, have begun to exhibit signs of deterioration such as rotting and breaking. Recognizing the significance of the architecture, the owners have typically retained and repaired the features, or replaced in kind.
In 1890 Willis G. Hale designed a row of fourteen Late Victorian Gothic twins located at 4501-4527 Regent Street (see photograph 7). This three-story, three-bay brick twins are unusual in that they are notably wider than typical twins and they have the form of triples with wall gabled end blocks, flanking a center dormer.
One of the district's notable late nineteenth century detached dwellings was designed for Charles Buzby in 1895 by R.G. Kennedy and is located at 4721 Chester Avenue (see photograph 8). Retaining a high degree of integrity, this three-story, three-bay brick Classical Revival/Renaissance Revival residence is distinguished by a wrap-around porch, clay tile roof, massive porch supported by corbelled capitals, large second story bay with terra cotta panel featuring classical motifs, and a hipped roof with broad overhanging eaves. As evident in the photograph, this building is well maintained and retains a very high degree of integrity.
One of the earliest groupings that reflects the growing popularity of the revival styles is 4404-4410 Pine Street, designed in c. 1895 (see photograph 9). These three-story, two-bay, buff colored brick Colonial Revival houses retain characteristics of the earlier Queen Anne style, though a clear move toward the revival is evident. This group is distinguished by the classical columned porches (4408-4410) with pedimented entrances, corner turrets with conical roofs, and applied pilasters and floral ornamentation, quoining, second floor bay windows with swag and garland ornamentation, and pedimented and arched dormer windows.
The buildings which date to this period are found throughout the district, though almost entirely west of 43rd Street where the land remained undeveloped at the turn of the century.
William Kimball developed the north side of the 4200 block of Pine in c. 1900-1905 with the erection of twelve, three-story, Roman brick Colonial Revival twin houses, and one three-story brick detached Colonial Revival house in the AAAAAABBCCDDC pattern (see photograph 10). This row is distinguished by its front yards enclosed with low schist walls, classical columned front porches with applied decoration and modillioned cornices, second floor metal bays with applied swag and garland ornamentation and modillioned cornices, third story arched or Palladian windows, Flemish cross gable dormers, and stained glass transom windows at the first story.
In 1904 Horace Trumbauer designed a large cream colored brick residence at 4200-4214 Pine Street for the Eisenlohr family, owners of Conco Cigar Company (see photograph 11). This two-and-one-half story, French Renaissance residence is organized in an H-plan with a large yard that is enclosed by tall, decorative iron fences. Distinguishing features include Ionic columned porches, steeply pitched slate hipped roof with metal coping and pinnacles, gabled and arched pedimented dormers, and tall end chimneys. Additions were erected in 1947, 1961, 1962, and 1971. The building is currently owned by the University of Pennsylvania and stands in excellent condition with a high degree of integrity.
With a continued demand for additional housing and the trend toward apartment living at the turn of the century, came the district's first apartment buildings. A. Lynn Walker designed the Stonehurst Apartments in c. 1900 which is located at 419-425 S. 45th Street (see photograph 12). This four-story, random-coursed, rock-faced limestone Romanesque Revival apartment building is distinguished by corner turrets with crennelated roof, two-story recessed porch with brick columns, two-story bay windows, tiled mansard roof with cross gables, and pedimented gables.
Around 1910, the Real Estate Bonding Company retained William Bull to build the Netherlands Apartment building at 4300-4322 Chestnut Street (see photograph 13). This four-story, orange brick and limestone Renaissance Revival apartment building contains oval windows flanking porticoed doorways, decorative stone trim, stone water table and belt course, stone modillioned cornice, and four-story curved bays. New windows of a compatible configuration have been installed and the building is well maintained, in good condition, and retains its integrity.
The final period of significant construction in the district occurred during the 1920s and largely consists of 4-5 story apartment houses. Most often, these apartment houses were designed in the popular revival styles of the period, incorporating restrained facades, and familiar interior axial plans. Though one to two stories taller than the district's predominantly three-story residences, the apartment buildings blend into the larger architectural composition by the use of familiar materials and ornamentation, and because the architects of these apartment buildings were required to conform to the lot depths which had been established in the nineteenth century. This final period is well represented along Chester Avenue, Spruce Street, and along the upper sections 45th and 46th Streets.
In 1927 Max Bernhardt designed the Winchester Apartments at 4804-4806 Chester Avenue for Barnet and Joseph Rubin (see photograph 14). This four-story, eight-bay, brick building contains half-timbering in the gables, indicating the movement toward the English revivals which had become popular in the 1920s and 1930s.
In that same year, Nathan Litman built the Royal Chester Court at 4601-4603 Chester Avenue (see photograph 15). This five-story, thirteen-bay, massive U-shaped, light yellow brick apartment building contains commercial space along the first floor. As is the case with many of the district's buildings, the storefronts have been altered with modern signage and awnings, alterations that typically have a minimal impact on the overall integrity. The brickwork of the first story is distinguished by deeply raked joints and a narrow cornice.
While it is the vast speculative residential development that characterizes this district, a remarkable variety of scale and design exists, in part afforded by the larger, and often triangular, corner lots. On these lots the district's churches and schools were built, a number of which are among the large number of architect designed buildings that stand. These buildings were important elements of the development plan, serving the needs of the local residents, and also providing architectural relief and monumentality to the three story blocks. The public buildings are distributed throughout the district, but are almost exclusively located on the larger corner lots. In total there are fourteen churches and four schools. Commercial architecture comprises approximately 5% of the total resources in the district.
Two representative churches stand at the corner of 47th Street and Kingsessing Avenue. In 1892 Furness, Evans & Co. designed the Chapel and Parish House for the Protestant Episcopal Church of the Atonement (now St. Peters Church of Christ, 4626 Kingsessing Avenue). This Victorian Gothic stone church was designed in keeping with the Episcopal tradition with the apse to the east, despite the southwest corner siting.(see note 1) Across 47th Street stands the Fourth Presbyterian Church (now Crusaders for Christ Church, 1201 S. 47th Street), with R.G. Kennedy's 1891 chapel and Edward Hazlehurst's 1902 church, both designed in the Victorian Gothic style. These buildings stand in very good condition with a high degree of integrity and are representative examples of church architecture in the district.
One the district's most monumental buildings is the St. Francis De Sales Roman Catholic Church at 47th and Springfield Avenue (see photograph 16). Designed by Henry Dagit in 1907, this Late Victorian Byzantine Revival church is constructed of coursed, rock-faced limestone ashlar with dressed marble and limestone trim. The tiled Byzantine dome with arcaded lantern contains four smaller tiled domes at the base. Fenestration is provided by round-arch windows with engaged columns and hoods, and a large oculus at the second story of the main elevation. The interior is organized in a three aisle plan with a rectangular chancel. The building stands in good condition with a very high degree of integrity. Its immense scale in this largely three story neighborhood has deemed it an important community landmark.
Another notable complex is Zantzinger, Borie, and Medary's former Episcopal Divinity School, which stands at the northwest corner of 42nd and Spruce Streets (see photograph 17). Designed in 1922-1926, this campus of six, schist, Collegiate Gothic Revival buildings was regarded as one of the most significant college plans at the time of construction. Included in this grouping are two residential-scale buildings: St. Peter's House (1924) at the southwest corner of the block which was originally built as the deanery; and St. Paul's House (1925), located to the west of the chapel and designed for the school's administration, and incorporates the Dean's office, common room and dormitory rooms. Four non-residential buildings are organized to form three sides of a courtyard and include the William Bacon Stevens Library (1922), housing a long reading room and stack area and designed in the Tudor Gothic Revival style; St. Andrew's Chapel (1926), the most architecturally significant of the grouping; Memorial Hall (1951) with dormitory and classrooms; and Hart Hall (1955), with a refectory and additional living quarters. St. Andrew's Chapel features an English collegiate plan with groups of pews parallel to the nave walls facing each other across a center aisle. The interior is richly decorated with D'Ascenzo stained glass, Yellin wrought iron gates, Enfield ceramic tiles, and intricately carved choir stalls. This complex is maintained by the University of Pennsylvania and stands in very good condition with high integrity.
The district's commercial buildings are primarily located along the main thoroughfares of Chestnut, Walnut, and Baltimore. These buildings were typically built with a first floor commercial space and living quarters above, such as exemplified by 4722-4728 Baltimore Avenue (see photograph 18). Within this grouping of three-story units, the original storefront configuration is evident with large glass panes and an entrance recessed into the volume of the building, allowing for deeper display windows. This grouping blends commercial and residential architectural elements such as the two-story pressed metal bay, a feature that is repeated throughout the district's post-1900 residential buildings, with the parapet above, an exclusively commercial element.
The twelve unit, two-story brick row located at 4511-4533 Baltimore Avenue is another representative example of the mixed-use row that characterizes Baltimore Avenue. Designed in 1892 with first story storefronts and living quarters above, the row retains its original form and many architectural details and thus contributes to the significance of the district in spite of the storefront alterations and the addition of modern signage that are demonstrated on many of the district's commercial rows.
In contrast to the two and three story mixed use rows, the district's large commercial buildings have often been spared the storefront upgrades that result from more frequent turnover in ownership. Primarily located along Chestnut and Walnut Streets, these 5-7 story buildings retain a very high degree of integrity as exemplified by the Atlas Storage Warehouse building designed c. 1924 by G. Kingsley, located at 4013 Walnut Street. This brick and glazed terra cotta Art Deco/Beaux Arts office building features monumental Doric columns, a pedimented facade with an ornate stained glass window, and a commercial storefront with recessed entrance containing bronze doors.
SITES AND OBJECTS
Also included within the bounds of the district are three contributing sites and one contributing object. The three sites include one city park and two community gardens. Clark Park (4300-4400 Baltimore Avenue) is the largest parcel of open space in the district and is a centrally located, 9.1 acre parcel comprised of lawns, walkways, and shade trees. Enframed by a circular path near the northern end of the park stands the only known life-size statue of Charles Dickens with Little Nell, a character from The Old Curiosity Shop. The statue, designed by Frank Elwell, is the district's only object, and was likely installed between 1900-1910, the decade during which the walkways were installed in the park. The district's two community gardens, located at 4228-4240 Baltimore Avenue and 610-622 S. 42nd Street represent the district's only open space aside from Clark Park. These gardens are maintained and planted by neighbor's groups. The S. 42nd Street garden is enclosed by an original iron fence marking the lot lines of a former residence.
The district contains remarkably few non-contributing resources, with the bulk of this group located on the commercial thoroughfares and representing late twentieth century modern architecture. Examples of non-contributing buildings include: 4542-4546 Baltimore Avenue which was built in 1923 but has undergone significant alterations to transform the building into an automotive repair center; a modern gas station located at 4414-4416 Chestnut Street; and several modern residential buildings including 3957 Baltimore Avenue (c. 1960), 4625-4637 Kingsessing Avenue (c. 1975), and 4500-4518 Spruce Street which is the University City Mews row designed in 1962 by Ronald Turner.
Of the district's more than 3,500 resources, less than 120 (3%) are listed as non-contributing. These buildings are primarily located along Baltimore, Chestnut and Walnut Streets, the main commercial thoroughfares, and are distributed amongst some of the district's most notable commercial and institutional buildings, and thus have a minimal effect on the integrity of the district.
The boundaries of this district were drawn based on the careful scrutiny of the two areas of significance: architecture and community planning and development. The blocks adjacent to the district contain houses of different or later architectural styles, that often contain less unique materials, less detailing, express a different character and scale, and most importantly, represent development that resulted from differing or later influences. This district evolved as a direct result of the streetcar lines which enabled individuals to live in the "suburbs" and readily commute to the city. The sprawl to the south and west largely resulted from the influence of the elevated railway and the automobile rather than the streetcar, and clearly differentiates the character of the district from the later development in West Philadelphia.
The eastern boundary is essentially defined by the presence of the University of Pennsylvania campus buildings and related commercial buildings along 40th Street. As the campus expanded westward, the nineteenth century residences were typically demolished or substantially altered in favor of modern commercial architecture. The conversion of 40th Street from a residential street to a commercial thoroughfare broke the visual and physical linkage between the district and the campus which established itself to the east. Continuing to the southeast, the Woodlands Cemetery stands as a strong physical boundary defined by the change in land use. The Philadelphia College of Pharmacy forms another leg of the southeast boundary and was not included due to the large proportion of modern, late-twentieth century architecture. The boundary line continues to jog toward the southwest, to the rear of the Woodland Avenue lots which contain a large proportion of buildings which would be deemed non-contributing. The boundary then follows the railroad line, another strong physical boundary, to St. Bernard Place. St. Bernard serves as a strong boundary, given the smaller two-story houses on the smaller lots to the rear which were built on lower terrain that serves as a strong visual and physical boundary. The line then jogs in a diagonal northwest direction, and was drawn to separate the streetcar suburb from the vast development of two-story houses that were built with the completion of the elevated rail line in 1907. These post-el buildings represent differing influences in architecture and community development which give the el development a unique identity that greatly differs from the character of the district. Examination of land use maps depicts two characteristics unique to the post el developments: significantly smaller lot sizes and orientation exclusively toward the east-west streets. The el houses also embody differing architectural scale and form with the predominant dwelling of a two-story height with a classical columned front porch and pressed metal bay above. The el development would likely be eligible for a separate district. The boundary then continues east, following the line established in the Garden Court National Register Historic District and continues around Garden Court's eastern boundary. The district includes the grouping of houses near 47th and Spruce that dates to the 1910s and 1920s in an effort to maintain visual continuity that exists along 45th and 46th and Spruce and Pine Streets where the open school lot and modern storefronts at 47th Street act as a boundary. Chestnut Street essentially serves as the northern boundary. The north side of Chestnut was generally excluded due to the high number of modern commercial buildings and altered historic buildings. Finally, the 4000 block of Ludlow Street, and sections of the 4100 block were included, as these blocks represent development contiguous to that demonstrated in the district.
(1) George E. Thomas, Pennsylvania Historic Resource Survey Form, Chapel and Parish House, Protestant Episcopal Church of the Atonement, June 10, 1981.